Typology of basic supranational innovative systems

Sergey I. Kravchenko, Mariia Yu. Zanizdra

Abstract


To confirm the hypothesis of the existence of several characteristic types of supranational innovation systems (SNIS), which can be found and identified, and to which all national macroeconomics in the world belong to with more or less degree of approximation, national and foreign experience in the development of appropriate classifications was considered. That includes: three-level taxonomy of national innovation systems (NIS) of the world (dated from 2005) with a special emphasis on innovation, dissemination of information and knowledge; two-level taxonomy of NIS of technologically developed OECD countries (dated from 2006); as well as the classification of tax populations, dated from 2018 (European, Chinese-East Asian, Indian-South Asian, Maghreb-middle East) and based on the "long" development trends.The considered approaches to supranational systems’ classification allow to estimate in detail their similarities and differences, depending on the structural elements, as well as the "weight" or the degree of influence of each main element on the final efficiency. However, these examples are more specific and narrowly focused than the developed typology of the SNIS-2018.The alternative scientific and methodological approach, offered in the paper, which is made on the basis of cluster analysis of 95 countries of the world, different in terms of economic and technological development, as well as geographical location, allows us to determine four distinctive types of SNIS in the context of the "Quadruple helix" model - co-evolutionary interaction of scientific, educational, industrial, economic, political and socio-cultural complexes. According to the proposed taxonomy has been allocated:type A SNIS - "developed countries with primarily inclusive institutions" - is a highly efficient type of innovative systems, which occupies the 1st place in the majority of classification criteria, except for the development of socio-cultural environment (2nd position);type B SNIS - "developing countries with mixed extractive-inclusive institutions with a strong socio-cultural component (predominantly Muslim and Buddhist-Hindu types)" - an average efficient type of innovative systems, which occupies the 1st place in terms of socio-cultural development, the 2nd - in terms of production, economic and political situation, the 3rd - in terms of the development of scientific and educational complex;type C SNIS - "developed countries and developing countries with mixed extractive-inclusive institutions with a strong informal component (including post-Soviet type)" - is a weakly efficient type of innovative systems, which mainly occupies the penultimate (3rd) place in most classification criteria, except for scientific and educational (2nd position) ones;type D SNIS - "developing countries with primarily extractive institutions" - is a low-efficient type of innovative systems, which occupies the last (4th) place in all classification criteria, forming the lower limit of the estimated range.The current situation of Ukraine in the context of the developed typology was characterized as follows: Ukraine belongs to type C SNIS; key indicators of the optimized sample lag behind the image of the average leader in its cluster; most of the target indicators belong to the group of state-political complex, which characterizes the low level of efficiency of national socio-economic institutions; according to the indicators of scientific and educational complex Ukraine's position is not significantly inferior to the leaders.

Keywords


national innovative system; supranational innovative system; typology; cluster analysis; scientific and educational complex; industrial and economic complex; state-political complex; socio-cultural complex

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/econindustry2019.01.005

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